Clustered protocadherins, a large family of paralogous proteins that play important roles in neuronal development, provide an important case study of interaction specificity in a large eukaryotic protein family. A mammalian genome has more than 50 clustered protocadherin isoforms, which have remarkable homophilic specificity for interactions between cellular surfaces. A large antiparallel dimer interface formed by the first 4 extracellular…
Read More
Despite substantial interest in the species diversity of the human microbiome and its role in disease, the scale of its genetic diversity, which is fundamental to deciphering human-microbe interactions, has not been quantified. Here, we conducted a cross-study meta-analysis of metagenomes from two human body niches, the mouth and gut, covering 3,655 samples from 13 studies. We found staggering genetic…
Read More
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is an aggressive cancer with limited treatment options1. Approximately 10% of cases exhibit familial predisposition, but causative genes are not known in most families2. We perform whole-genome sequence analysis in a family with multiple cases of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and identify a germline truncating mutation in the member of the RAS oncogene family-like 3 (RABL3) gene. Heterozygous rabl3 mutant…
Read More
Integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs) are mobile genetic elements that transfer from cell to cell by conjugation (like plasmids) and integrate into the chromosomes of bacterial hosts (like lysogenic phages or transposons). ICEs are prevalent in bacterial chromosomes and play a major role in bacterial evolution by promoting horizontal gene transfer. Exclusion prevents redundant transfer of conjugative elements into host…
Read More
Ischemic diseases are a leading cause of mortality and can result in autoamputation of lower limbs. We explored the hypothesis that implantation of an antigen-releasing scaffold, in animals previously vaccinated with the same antigen, can concentrate TH2 T cells and enhance vascularization of ischemic tissue. This approach may be clinically relevant, as all persons receiving childhood vaccines recommended by the…
Read More
Animals have evolved specialized neural circuits to defend themselves from pain- and injury-causing stimuli. Using a combination of optical, behavioral and genetic approaches in the larval zebrafish, we describe a novel role for hypothalamic oxytocin (OXT) neurons in the processing of noxious stimuli. In vivo imaging revealed that a large and distributed fraction of zebrafish OXT neurons respond strongly to…
Read More
An unbalanced increase in dietary omega-6 (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and decrease in omega-3 (n-3) PUFA in the Western diet coincides with the global rise in chronic diseases. Whether n-6 and n-3 PUFA oppositely contribute to the development of chronic disease remains controversial. By using transgenic mice capable of synthesizing PUFA to eliminate confounding factors of diet, we show…
Read More
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have revealed risk alleles for ulcerative colitis (UC). To understand their cell type specificities and pathways of action, we generate an atlas of 366,650 cells from the colon mucosa of 18 UC patients and 12 healthy individuals, revealing 51 epithelial, stromal, and immune cell subsets, including BEST4 + enterocytes, microfold-like cells, and IL13RA2 + IL11 + inflammatory fibroblasts, which we associate with resistance to anti-TNF…
Read More
Abstract Inspired by embryonic wound closure, we present mechanically active dressings to accelerate wound healing. Conventional dressings passively aid healing by maintaining moisture at wound sites. Recent developments have focused on drug and cell delivery to drive a healing process, but these methods are often complicated by drug side effects, sophisticated fabrication, and high cost. Here, we present novel active…
Read More
Stromal cell populations that maintain hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) are generally characterized in steady-state conditions. Here, we report a comprehensive atlas of bone marrow stromal cell subpopulations under homeostatic and stress conditions using mass cytometry (CyTOF)-based single-cell protein analysis. We identified 28 subsets of non-hematopoietic cells during homeostasis, 14 of which expressed hematopoietic regulatory factors. Irradiation-based conditioning for…
Read More