Macromolecular transport across the nuclear envelope depends on facilitated diffusion through nuclear pore complexes (NPCs). The interior of NPCs contains a permeability barrier made of phenylalanine-glycine (FG) repeat domains that selectively facilitates the permeation of cargoes bound to nuclear transport receptors (NTRs). FG-repeat domains in NPCs are a major site of O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) modification, but the functional role of this modification…
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Histones are rapidly loaded on the HSV genome upon entry into the nucleus of human fibroblasts, but the effects of histone loading on viral replication have not been fully defined. We showed recently that ATRX is dispensable for de novo deposition of H3 to HSV genomes after nuclear entry but restricted infection through maintenance of viral heterochromatin. To further investigate the roles…
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Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has a collagen-rich dense extracellular matrix (ECM) that promotes malignancy of cancer cells and presents a barrier for drug delivery. Data analysis of our published mass spectrometry (MS)-based studies on enriched ECM from samples of progressive PDAC stages reveal that the C-terminal prodomains of fibrillar collagens are partially uncleaved in PDAC ECM, suggesting reduced procollagen C-proteinase…
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As organelles of the innate immune system, inflammasomes activate caspase-1 and other inflammatory caspases that cleave gasdermin D (GSDMD). Caspase-1 also cleaves inactive precursors of the interleukin (IL)-1 family to generate mature cytokines such as IL-1β and IL-18. Cleaved GSDMD forms transmembrane pores to enable the release of IL-1 and to drive cell lysis through pyroptosis. Here we report cryo-electron…
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FOXP3 deficiency in mice and in patients with immune dysregulation polyendocrinopathy enteropathy X-linked (IPEX) syndrome results in fatal autoimmunity by altering regulatory T (Treg) cells. CD4+ T cells in patients with IPEX syndrome and Foxp3-deficient mice were analyzed by single-cell cytometry and RNA-sequencing, revealing heterogeneous Treg-like cells, some very similar to normal Treg cells, others more distant. Conventional T cells showed no widespread activation…
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Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are widespread in bacteria, but their activation mechanisms and bona fide targets remain largely unknown. Here, we characterize a type III TA system, toxIN, that protects E. coli against multiple bacteriophages, including T4. Using RNA sequencing, we find that the endoribonuclease ToxN is activated following T4 infection and blocks phage development primarily by cleaving viral mRNAs and inhibiting their translation. ToxN…
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MicroRNAs (miRNA) are known to regulate expression of genes involved in several physiological processes including metabolism, mitochondrial biogenesis, proliferation, differentiation, and cell death. Using “in silico” analyses, we identified 219 unique miRNAs that potentially bind to the 3’UTR region of a critical mitochondrial regulator, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator (PGC) 1 alpha (Pgc1α). Out of the 219 candidate miRNAs, miR-696 had…
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Chemokines are chemotactic cytokines that regulate the migration of immune cells. Chemokines function as cues for the coordinated recruitment of immune cells into and out of tissue and also guide the spatial organization and cellular interactions of immune cells within tissues. Chemokines are critical in directing immune cell migration necessary to mount and then deliver an effective anti-tumor immune response;…
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Microglial-derived inflammation has been linked to a broad range of neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric conditions, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Using single-cell RNA sequencing, a class of Disease-Associated Microglia (DAMs) have been characterized in neurodegeneration. However, the DAM phenotype alone is insufficient to explain the functional complexity of microglia, particularly with regard to regulating inflammation that is a hallmark of many…
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