Entomopathogenic nematodes are widely used as biopesticides1,2. Their insecticidal activity depends on symbiotic bacteria such as Photorhabdus luminescens, which produces toxin complex (Tc) toxins as major virulence factors3,4,5,6. No protein receptors are known for any Tc toxins, which limits our understanding of their specificity and pathogenesis. Here we use genome-wide CRISPR–Cas9-mediated knockout screening in Drosophila melanogaster S2R+ cells and identify Visgun (Vsg) as…
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Developmental Dynamics of RNA Translation in the Human Brain

The precise regulation of gene expression is fundamental to neurodevelopment, plasticity and cognitive function. Although several studies have profiled transcription in the developing human brain, there is a gap in understanding of accompanying translational regulation. In this study, we performed ribosome profiling on 73 human prenatal and adult cortex samples. We characterized the translational regulation of annotated open reading frames…
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Organoids serve as a novel tool for disease modeling in three-dimensional multicellular contexts. Static organoids, however, lack the requisite biophysical microenvironment such as fluid flow, limiting their ability to faithfully recapitulate disease pathology. Here, we unite organoids with organ-on-a-chip technology to unravel disease pathology and develop therapies for autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease. PKHD1-mutant organoids-on-a-chip are subjected to flow that induces…
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Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells can revolutionize cancer medicine. However, overactivation, lack of tumor-specific surface markers, and antigen escape have hampered CAR T cell development. A multi-antigen targeting CAR system regulated by clinically approved pharmaceutical agents is needed. Here, we present VIPER CARs (versatile protease regulatable CARs), a collection of inducible ON and OFF switch CAR circuits engineered with…
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Many bacterial species are represented by a pan-genome, whose genetic repertoire far outstrips that of any single bacterial genome. Here we investigate how a bacterial pan-genome might influence gene essentiality and whether essential genes that are initially critical for the survival of an organism can evolve to become non-essential. By using Transposon insertion sequencing (Tn-seq), whole-genome sequencing and RNA-seq on…
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Mortality among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is largely a consequence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and is a particular concern given the increasing prevalence of CKD. Sterile inflammation triggered by activation of the innate immune system is an important driver of both CKD and associated CVD. Several endogenous mediators, including lipoproteins, crystals such as silica, urate and cholesterol crystals,…
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Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), primarily a respiratory disease caused by infection with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is often accompanied by gastrointestinal symptoms. However, little is known about the relation between the human microbiome and COVID-19, largely due to the fact that most previous studies fail to provide high taxonomic resolution to identify microbes that likely interact with…
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A central problem in spatial transcriptomics is detecting differentially expressed (DE) genes within cell types across tissue context. Challenges to learning DE include changing cell type composition across space and measurement pixels detecting transcripts from multiple cell types. Here, we introduce a statistical method, cell type-specific inference of differential expression (C-SIDE), that identifies cell type-specific DE in spatial transcriptomics, accounting…
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Central nervous system (CNS) germ cell tumors (GCTs) represent 2-3% of all primary CNS tumors. The majority are germinomas, which are radiosensitive and have an excellent prognosis. Contrarily, CNS non-germinomatous GCTs (NGGCTs) have less favorable prognosis and require more aggressive treatment. The expression of checkpoint/immune markers in CNS GCTs, particularly NGGCTs, is unknown. We previously reported a case of a…
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Some small cell lung cancers (SCLCs) are highly sensitive to inhibitors of the histone demethylase LSD1. LSD1 inhibitors are thought to induce their anti-proliferative effects by blocking neuroendocrine differentiation, but the mechanisms by which LSD1 controls the SCLC neuroendocrine phenotype are not well understood. To identify genes required for LSD1 inhibitor sensitivity in SCLC, we performed a positive selection genome-wide…
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