Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is caused by the immune-mediated loss of pancreatic beta cells that produce insulin. The latest advances in stem cell (SC)-beta cell differentiation methods have made a cell replacement therapy for T1D feasible. However, recurring autoimmunity would rapidly destroy transplanted SC-beta cells. A promising strategy to overcome immune rejection is to genetically engineer SC-beta cells. We previously…
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Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) has relatively ineffective first/second-line therapy for advanced disease and only 18% five-year survival for early disease. Drug-induced mitochondrial priming measured by dynamic BH3 profiling identifies efficacious drugs in multiple disease settings. We use high throughput dynamic BH3 profiling (HTDBP) to identify drug combinations that prime primary MPM cells derived from patient tumors, which also prime patient…
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The identification of a neurodegenerative disorder’s distributed pattern of atrophy—or atrophy “signature”— can lend insights into the cortical networks that degenerate in individuals with specific constellations of symptoms. In addition, this signature can be used as a biomarker to support early diagnoses and to potentially reveal pathological changes associated with said disorder. Here, we characterized the cortical atrophy signature of…
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Focal copy-number amplification is an oncogenic event. Although recent studies have revealed the complex structure1,2,3 and the evolutionary trajectories4 of oncogene amplicons, their origin remains poorly understood. Here we show that focal amplifications in breast cancer frequently derive from a mechanism—which we term translocation–bridge amplification—involving inter-chromosomal translocations that lead to dicentric chromosome bridge formation and breakage. In 780 breast cancer genomes, we…
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Early initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) alters viral rebound kinetics after analytic treatment interruption (ATI) and may play a role in promoting HIV-1 remission. Autologous neutralizing antibodies (aNAbs) represent a key adaptive immune response in people living with HIV-1. We aimed to investigate the role of aNAbs in shaping post-ATI HIV-1 rebound variants. We performed single-genome amplification of HIV-1 env from pre-ART…
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Soluble oligomers of amyloid β-protein (Aβ) have been defined as aggregates in supernatants following ultracentrifugation of aqueous extracts from Alzheimer’s disease (AD) brains and are believed to be upstream initiators of synaptic dysfunction, but little is known about their structures. We now report the unexpected presence of Aβ fibrils in synaptotoxic high-speed supernatants from AD brains extracted by soaking in…
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Neural tissue damaged after central nervous system (CNS) injury does not naturally regenerate but is instead replaced by non-neural fibrotic scar tissue that serves no neurological function. Scar-free repair to create a more permissive environment for regeneration requires altering the natural injury responses of glial cells. In this work, glycopolymer-based supramolecular hydrogels are synthesized to direct adaptive glia repair after…
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The Kiessling Group uses chemical biology to elucidate the biological roles of carbohydrates, with a focus on learning new mechanistic concepts. Understanding carbohydrate function is essential as all cells on earth have a carbohydrate coat called the glycocalyx.  The glycocalyx is poised to mediate or modulate diverse and critical biological and physiological events.
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A fundamental challenge in diagnostics is integrating multiple modalities to develop a joint characterization of physiological state. Using the heart as a model system, we develop a cross-modal autoencoder framework for integrating distinct data modalities and constructing a holistic representation of cardiovascular state. In particular, we use our framework to construct such cross-modal representations from cardiac magnetic resonance images (MRIs),…
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Usher syndrome type 1 F (USH1F), caused by mutations in the protocadherin-15 gene (PCDH15), is characterized by congenital deafness, lack of balance, and progressive blindness. In hair cells, the receptor cells of the inner ear, PCDH15 is a component of tip links, fine filaments which pull open mechanosensory transduction channels. A simple gene addition therapy for USH1F is challenging because the…
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