Tissue-resident macrophages are highly specialized to their tissue-specific microenvironments, activated by various inflammatory signals and modulated by genetic and environmental factors. Osteoclasts and microglia are distinct tissue-resident cells of the macrophage lineage in bone and brain that are responsible for pathological changes in osteoporosis and Alzheimer’s disease (AD), respectively. Osteoporosis is more frequently observed in individuals with AD compared to…
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Efficacy and Safety of the mRNA-1273 SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine

Vaccines are needed to prevent coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) and to protect persons who are at high risk for complications. The mRNA-1273 vaccine is a lipid nanoparticle–encapsulated mRNA-based vaccine that encodes the prefusion stabilized full-length spike protein of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus that causes Covid-19. This phase 3 randomized, observer-blinded, placebo-controlled trial was conducted…
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Antibodies serve as biomarkers of infection, but if sustained can confer long-term immunity. Yet, for most clinically approved vaccines, binding antibody titers only serve as a surrogate of protection. Instead, the ability of vaccine induced antibodies to neutralize or mediate Fc-effector functions is mechanistically linked to protection. While evidence has begun to point to persisting antibody responses among SARS-CoV-2 infected…
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Annotating the molecular basis of human disease remains an unsolved challenge, as 93% of disease loci are non-coding and gene-regulatory annotations are highly incomplete1,2,3. Here we present EpiMap, a compendium comprising 10,000 epigenomic maps across 800 samples, which we used to define chromatin states, high-resolution enhancers, enhancer modules, upstream regulators and downstream target genes. We used this resource to annotate 30,000 genetic loci…
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The Knipe laboratory studies the mechanisms by which herpes simplex virus (HSV) undergoes a productive infection in epithelial cells, versus a latent infection in neurons, where only one transcriptional unit is expressed efficiently. They also investigate the mechanisms of the host immune response to viral infection, and the use of mutant strains of HSV as a herpes vaccine and as a vaccine vector
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Synovial sarcoma (SyS) is an aggressive neoplasm driven by the SS18–SSX fusion, and is characterized by low T cell infiltration. Here, we studied the cancer–immune interplay in SyS using an integrative approach that combines single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq), spatial profiling and genetic and pharmacological perturbations. scRNA-seq of 16,872 cells from 12 human SyS tumors uncovered a malignant subpopulation that marks…
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Mutations affecting mitochondrial coenzyme Q (CoQ) biosynthesis lead to kidney failure due to selective loss of podocytes, essential cells of the kidney filter. Curiously, neighboring tubular epithelial cells are spared early in disease, despite higher mitochondrial content. We sought to illuminate non-canonical, cell-specific roles for CoQ, independent of the electron transport chain (ETC). Here we demonstrate that CoQ depletion caused…
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Signaling through the CD19-CD81 co-receptor complex, in combination with the B cell receptor, is a critical determinant of B cell development and activation. It is unknown how CD81 engages CD19 to enable co-receptor function. Here, we report a 3.8-angstrom structure of the CD19-CD81 complex bound to a therapeutic antigen-binding fragment, determined by cryo–electron microscopy (cryo-EM). The structure includes both the…
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Detailed phylogenies of tumor populations can recount the history and chronology of critical events during cancer progression, such as metastatic dissemination. We applied a Cas9-based, single-cell lineage tracer to study the rates, routes, and drivers of metastasis in a lung cancer xenograft mouse model. We report deeply resolved phylogenies for tens of thousands of cancer cells traced over months of…
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