Eukaryotic cells organize their large genomes into a compacted structure called chromatin. The condensed structure of chromatin, with its fundamental unit the nucleosome, represents a challenge to nucleic acid–transacting machines including RNA polymerase II (Pol II), the enzyme responsible for the transcription of most protein-coding genes. How RNA Pol II overcomes nucleosomes without disrupting chromatin organization remains unknown. Using cryo–electron…
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Gout is a common inflammatory arthritis caused by precipitation of monosodium urate (MSU) crystals in individuals with hyperuricemia. Acute flares are accompanied by secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-1 beta (IL-1B). Clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential (CHIP) is an age-related condition predisposing to hematologic cancers and cardiovascular disease. CHIP is associated with elevated IL-1B, thus we investigated CHIP as a…
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Nausea is a discomforting sensation of gut malaise that remains a major clinical challenge. Several visceral poisons induce nausea through the area postrema, a sensory circumventricular organ that detects bloodborne factors. Here, we use genetic approaches based on an area postrema cell atlas to reveal inhibitory neurons that counteract nausea-associated poison responses. The gut hormone glucose insulinotropic peptide (GIP) activates…
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Context-Specific Polycomb Mechanisms in Development

Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are crucial chromatin regulators that maintain repression of lineage-inappropriate genes and are therefore required for stable cell fate. Recent advances show that PcG proteins form distinct multi-protein complexes in various cellular environments, such as in early development, adult tissue maintenance and cancer. This surprising compositional diversity provides the basis for mechanistic diversity. Understanding this complexity deepens…
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Acinetobacter baumannii is increasingly refractory to antibiotic treatment in healthcare settings. As is true of most human pathogens, the genetic path to antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and the role that the immune system plays in modulating AMR during disease are poorly understood. Here we reproduced several routes to fluoroquinolone resistance, performing evolution experiments using sequential lung infections in mice that are replete…
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Glioblastoma (GBM) is an incurable primary malignant brain cancer hallmarked with a substantial protumorigenic immune component. Knowledge of the GBM immune microenvironment during tumor evolution and standard of care treatments is limited. Using single-cell transcriptomics and flow cytometry, we unveiled large-scale comprehensive longitudinal changes in immune cell composition throughout tumor progression in an epidermal growth factor receptor-driven genetic mouse GBM…
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Intracellular Sensing of DNA in Autoinflammation and Autoimmunity

DNA has emerged as a Pathogen Associated Molecular Pattern (PAMP), posing unique challenges in the discrimination between endogenous (self) and foreign DNA. This challenge is highlighted by certain autoinflammatory diseases that arise from monogenic mutations and result in periodic flares of inflammation, typically in the absence of autoantibodies or antigen-specific T lymphocytes. A number of autoinflammatory diseases arise due to…
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Insulin resistance and poor glycemic control are key drivers of the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and have recently been shown to be associated with fibrosis progression in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The authors set out to determine whether Protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2), a sensor of extracellular inflammatory and coagulation proteases, links NAFLD and NASH with liver glucose metabolism.
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The use of stem cells to repair the injured nervous system has shown promising results in experimental models. However, stem cell therapy development is limited by the paucity of available neural stem cells (NSCs). Here, Stavley et al. identified a population of Schwann cells in nerve bundles obtained from human and rodent subcutaneous fat tissue (SAT). In vitro, these cells acquired NSC…
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Cellular therapies offer a promising therapeutic strategy for the highly malignant brain tumor, glioblastoma (GBM). However, their clinical translation is limited by the lack of effective target identification and stringent testing in pre-clinical models that replicate standard treatment in GBM patients. In this study, we show the detection of cell surface death receptor (DR) target on CD146-enriched circulating tumor cells (CTC)…
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