CD39 is an ectonucleotidase that initiates conversion of extracellular nucleotides into immunosuppressive adenosine. CD39 is expressed by regulatory T (Treg)-cells, where it mediates immunosuppression, and by a subset of T-helper (Th) 17-cells, where it limits pathogenicity. CD39 is regulated via single-nucleotide-polymorphisms and upon activation of aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor and oxygen-mediated pathways. Here we report a mechanism of CD39 regulation that relies on…
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Catamaran Bio, Inc., a biotechnology company developing allogeneic CAR-NK cell therapies to treat cancer, today announced that the company has launched with $42 million in financing. Sofinnova Partners and Lightstone Ventures co-led the Series A round that is part of the launch financing, with participation by founding investor SV Health Investors, as well as Takeda Ventures and Astellas Venture Management.…
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Six Harvard Medical School scientists and clinicians have been elected by their peers as 2020 Fellows of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). They are among this year’s 489 members awarded this honor by virtue of their scientifically or socially distinguished efforts to advance science or its applications. The honor comes with an expectation that recipients maintain the highest standards of…
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Favoritism or impartiality? Do the four genomic subtypes of melanoma have a bias toward certain mutated genes and gene pathways, or do they welcome all mutations equally? Answering that question has been especially difficult because of cutaneous melanoma’s high mutation rate — the profusion of misspelled, severed, out-of-place, missing-in-action, or overabundant genes found in melanoma skin tumors. This roar of…
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Embedded throughout the gastrointestinal system is an extensive array of neurons that coordinates nearly all activities involved in digestion, gut motility, and response to noxious stimuli. These cells make up the enteric nervous system (ENS) and transmit signals from the gut to the brain, but are rare and fragile, making them difficult to isolate and study. A team led by…
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Six MIT faculty members have been elected as fellows of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). The new fellows are among a group of 489 AAAS members elected by their peers in recognition of their scientifically or socially distinguished efforts to advance science. A virtual induction ceremony for the new fellows will be held on Feb. 13, 2021. Nazli…
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Within a single cell, thousands of molecules, such as proteins, ions, and other signaling molecules, work together to perform all kinds of functions — absorbing nutrients, storing memories, and differentiating into specific tissues, among many others. Deciphering these molecules, and all of their interactions, is a monumental task. Over the past 20 years, scientists have developed fluorescent reporters they can…
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Genetics has made huge strides over the past 20 years, from the sequencing of the human genome to a growing understanding of factors that turn genes on and off, namely transcription factors and the DNA “enhancer” sequences they bind to. New research from Boston Children’s Hospital introduces another previously unknown layer of human genetics. It finds genetic variation in a…
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Web of Science Group has announced its Highly Cited Researchers 2020 list, which identifies researchers who demonstrated significant influence in their chosen field or fields through the publication of multiple highly cited papers during the last decade. Their names are drawn from the publications that rank in the top 1% by citations for field and publication year in the Web of Science™…
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The authors investigated the pathways hijacked by the SARS-CoV-2 cells in human alveolar cells during this respiratory infection. Unlike the transformed cell studies reported this year, this study highlights physiologically relevant pathways targeted by the virus that are uniquely important to lung pathogenesis, revealing fundamental mechanisms supporting viral replication in the distal lung, and unexpected clinically actionable therapeutic targets.
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