Clonal hematopoiesis, a condition in which individual hematopoietic stem cell clones generate a disproportionate fraction of blood leukocytes, correlates with higher risk for cardiovascular disease. The mechanisms behind this association are incompletely understood. Here, we show that hematopoietic stem cell division rates are increased in mice and humans with atherosclerosis. Mathematical analysis demonstrates that increased stem cell proliferation expedites somatic…
Read More

Cryo-EM Structure of an Activated GPCR-G Protein Complex in Lipid Nanodiscs

G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the largest superfamily of transmembrane proteins and the targets of over 30% of currently marketed pharmaceuticals. Although several structures have been solved for GPCR-G protein complexes, few are in a lipid membrane environment. Here, we report cryo-EM structures of complexes of neurotensin, neurotensin receptor 1 and Gαi1β1γ1 in two conformational states, resolved to resolutions of 4.1 and…
Read More
The cancer stem cell (CSC) concept emerged from the recognition of inherent tumor heterogeneity and suggests that within a given tumor, in analogy to normal tissues, there exists a cellular hierarchy composed of a minority of more primitive cells with enhanced longevity (i.e., CSCs) that give rise to shorter-lived, more differentiated cells (i.e., cancer bulk populations), which on their own…
Read More

Elavl1 Impacts Osteogenic Differentiation and mRNA Levels of Genes Involved in ECM Organization

Posttranscriptional gene regulation by Adenylate Uridylate (AU) rich element RNA binding protein, Elavl1 has been implicated in embryonic development as well as progenitor cell differentiation. Elavl1 binds to hundreds of cellular messenger RNAs predominantly through interactions with AU-rich elements (AREs) found in the untranslated regions (UTRs) and functions by regulating their stability. Biological functions of Elavl1 during osteogenic differentiation of…
Read More
Tissue-resident macrophages are highly specialized to their tissue-specific microenvironments, activated by various inflammatory signals and modulated by genetic and environmental factors. Osteoclasts and microglia are distinct tissue-resident cells of the macrophage lineage in bone and brain that are responsible for pathological changes in osteoporosis and Alzheimer’s disease (AD), respectively. Osteoporosis is more frequently observed in individuals with AD compared to…
Read More

Efficacy and Safety of the mRNA-1273 SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine

Vaccines are needed to prevent coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) and to protect persons who are at high risk for complications. The mRNA-1273 vaccine is a lipid nanoparticle–encapsulated mRNA-based vaccine that encodes the prefusion stabilized full-length spike protein of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus that causes Covid-19. This phase 3 randomized, observer-blinded, placebo-controlled trial was conducted…
Read More
Antibodies serve as biomarkers of infection, but if sustained can confer long-term immunity. Yet, for most clinically approved vaccines, binding antibody titers only serve as a surrogate of protection. Instead, the ability of vaccine induced antibodies to neutralize or mediate Fc-effector functions is mechanistically linked to protection. While evidence has begun to point to persisting antibody responses among SARS-CoV-2 infected…
Read More
Annotating the molecular basis of human disease remains an unsolved challenge, as 93% of disease loci are non-coding and gene-regulatory annotations are highly incomplete1,2,3. Here we present EpiMap, a compendium comprising 10,000 epigenomic maps across 800 samples, which we used to define chromatin states, high-resolution enhancers, enhancer modules, upstream regulators and downstream target genes. We used this resource to annotate 30,000 genetic loci…
Read More
The Knipe laboratory studies the mechanisms by which herpes simplex virus (HSV) undergoes a productive infection in epithelial cells, versus a latent infection in neurons, where only one transcriptional unit is expressed efficiently. They also investigate the mechanisms of the host immune response to viral infection, and the use of mutant strains of HSV as a herpes vaccine and as a vaccine vector
Read More